by Robin P Foy – Psychic Researcher and Ambassador for the Spirit World for 42 years 
Mediumship in its various forms has taken place since the beginning of time – despite the fact that most people assume that it only began with the launch of the official religion of ‘Spiritualism’ in 1848 through the Fox sisters at Hydesville in the New York State of the USA. Just as I have stated in the title of this article, mediumship can be defined as ‘The Natural Process of Communication with the Spirit World and Other Dimensions’ in a number of different ways.
Mediums can be traced right back to the time of ancient civilisations including Atlantis and Ancient Egypt. Sometimes – as in ancient Greece – these have been referred to as ‘Oracles’. The famous Oracle at Delphi in Greece, for example, involved those who consulted it (and the ‘mediums’ who worked there) gazing into a large mirror or the highly polished surface of a large metal vessel to enjoy a personal interaction (of a physical nature) with the Spirit World. This method is still used today (with more up-to-date technology) by using a piece of mirror-based equipment called a ‘Psychomantium’.
In Atlantis, communication with the Spirit World and ‘Other Dimensions’ was effected through the use of a massive crystal that hung in a special room. Regrettably, the knowledge of communication through crystals has mainly been lost over the millennia, and is only now resurfacing once again; as we witnessed from 1993 to 1998 during our now famous 5-year long experiments in the village of Scole, which is situated in the East Anglia area of England.
Mediumship in its proper forms is a serious business. For the specific job of a ‘medium’ is to bring real ‘evidence’ to the public at large of the reality of ‘Life After Death’, by delivering evidential messages to those seeking their services from deceased friends and relatives. A medium is not simply ‘born’ with the ability to deliver such messages without working hard for many years to develop the various mediumistic talents they have. Even for those mediums who have been aware of their early abilities from a very young age to communicate with the Spirit World, there is a need for them to study and research the subject for years in a respectful way, so that they can perfect and hone their mediumship skills.
Various mediums and psychic researchers tend to specialize in the aspects of mediumship which suit them best, and in which – after years of careful development – they can best use their talents for the benefit of mankind. Believe me – mediumship is not an easy life, but a life of constant service to others. In my own case, I have been intimately involved in the rare field of Physical Mediumship for almost 42 years now, and have gathered a vast experience and knowledge of that form of mediumship over the years.


I will now try and explain something about how the different forms of mediumship work.
Mental Mediumship:
Mental Mediumship is the most common of the two types of mediumship that are practiced today: there are literally hundreds of thousands of ‘mental’ mediums throughout the world. Most people (if they have the desire and patience to do so) are able to develop one or more of the three main forms of mental mediumship to some degree if they sit for it in a dedicated way (within a development circle) under a good teacher. It is possible for an individual to develop the first signs of mental mediumship in a relatively short space of time; sometimes within weeks of starting to train as a medium. A much longer period of development is, however, necessary for the ‘fledgling medium’ to achieve a good standard in their mediumistic work.
The three main forms of mental mediumship are: 1)  Clairvoyance   2)  Clairaudience   3)  Clairsentience
Clairvoyance:  Is the ability of the medium to ‘see’ spirit personalities. Sometimes the medium sees these spirit people as though they are real people, moving about in a normal and natural way. At other times, the medium might ‘see’ them on the ‘mirror of their mind’ within their head. What distinguishes this as mental mediumship however, is the fact that only the medium sees these spirit people. Anybody else who is present does not. The medium can pass on to his or her ‘sitter’ what they are seeing, by way of evidence.
Clairaudience:  Is the ability of the medium to ‘hear’ what the spirit personalities are saying. This gift often goes together with clairvoyance. Sometimes the medium hears these spirit voices as though they are real and coming from another real person in the room with them. At other times, the medium ‘hears’ the voices within their head again ‘on the mirror of their mind’. The medium is the only person who hears these voices, and can pass on to their ‘sitter’ what the spirit person is telling them, by way of evidence of the existence of ‘life after death’. Such a ‘message’ can provide great comfort for a bereaved friend, relative or loved one.
Clairsentience:  Is the ability of the medium to ‘sense’ the presence of spirit people, and to ‘sense’ what they are saying. Again, the medium is the only person who can (through their training) sense the presence of these spirit personalities, and sense the ‘message’ from a specific spirit person that they can then pass on to their ‘sitter’, who has gone to them for a reading, or who might receive such a message in a spiritualist church.
With regard to this belonging within the categories of either Mental Mediumship or Physical Mediumship, Trance Medumship as such is a bit of a ‘Grey Area’. There are indeed so many different ‘Levels’ and depths of trance, between the state of being ‘Overshadowed’ and being in ‘Deep Trance’, where a medium is totally unconscious and unaware of anything that is happening within themselves and around them. I believe that it is better to simply refer to any level of trance as an ‘altered state’, as this is a more accurate description of every level.
It can be argued logically in most cases that, even if an entranced medium is aware of every word that is spoken through him or her, the medium has no physical control over the content of what is said. Other than when a medium is in a very light trance (overshadowed), this is essentially an accurate statement.
If this is indeed the case, then it can further be argued that – since the medium has no physical control over the content of what is spoken through their own larynx whilst they are in this altered state – the process of a spirit person speaking through them in this way is an aspect of physical mediumship.
Whilst I can personally see the logic of this argument, I do not regard trance mediumship as such as an aspect of physical mediumship but – simply – in some cases (not all) a tool to enable the production of physical phenomena when properly managed by a ‘team’ of spirit personalities who work with a particular medium.
Sometimes we have to be careful not to mix up the terms which are used for a type of physical phenomena with a trance communicaton through the human larynx of a medium. I know of several experienced psychic researchers, for instance, who have gone for a private sitting with a trance medium who advertises ‘direct voice’, only to discover that instead of physical phenomena, they have simply been treated to trance communication through a medium. It might be an honest mistake to make on the part of the medium, but it can be very misleading and, hopefully, we can help to set the record straight.
However, when sitting specifically for physical phenomena in the more traditional way – ectoplasmic-based – the single physical medium involved is usually in a ‘deep trance’ state. There are exceptions to this; the famous Independent Direct Voice medium Leslie Flint comes to mind here, as Leslie was fully awake during his sittings and was able to join in the conversations with the spirit voices that occurred through his mediumship.
When a medium is capable of producing full ectoplasm-based materialization, however, it does seem essential for them to be in a deep trance throughout this process.
This is not necessarily the case where an experimental group is sitting for physical phenomena in the more modern energy-based way, where no ectoplasm is involved in the process. It is true that one or more of the group sitting in this way may be used in trance. That is particularly helpful when an experimental group first starts sitting to develop physical phenomena, as communications and instructions to help the group with their development can then be received in that way. Throughout the history of the Scole Experiment in the 1990’s (where the energy-based method was pioneered) we had two of the group members in deep trance throughout the sittings, but the Scole Group was unique at that time.
These days, we have been told by our spirit helpers that trance is not always necessary at all for phenomena to be produced in the energy-based way. In fact, Sandra and I sat for some time in an experimental group in South London, who had amazing physical phenomena where nobody at all went into an altered state. The group did not even know who the medium of the circle was at the time, although we did eventually discover his identity. The gentleman had no idea himself!
The more likely scenario today is that one or more of the sitters might be used in an altered state to bring through communications from the spirit team who work with the group in an energy-based format, but when this happens the trance state will not be as deep as when the circle are developing in the more traditional ectoplasm-based format.
I must stress here, however, that neither way of working is better than the other. They are just different ways of working, and an equal amount of dedication, love, patience, harmony and determination is necessary to develop positive results. It is true that the energy-based format has certain advantages, which I will go on to explain soon.
So far, we have covered a few of the basic properties of the different forms of mediumship that are practiced today (mental and physical) amongst the spiritual and psychic research communities. Now we need to look at and explain a little more about the different types of physical phenomena that can happen under controlled conditions when an experimental group or physical circle sit specifically to witness or demonstrate phenomena. The main difference between mental and physical mediumship is that during demonstrations of physical mediumship – everybody present can see, hear, feel and experience physically everything that is going on in the room and/or interact physically with the spirit personalities who are present.
To begin with, I need to properly examine the different ways of producing physical phenomena.
Not everybody is aware that Physical Mediumship now takes place in two totally different ways. The traditional view within the Spiritualist Movement is that physical phenomena can only be presented by spirit helpers using the controversial substance known as ‘ectoplasm’. This method has been used by Physical Mediums and their guides and helpers since 1848. Generally, it involves just one physical medium, who is usually in deep trance throughout the proceedings. The medium usually sits in a ‘cabinet’ throughout to concentrate the power (this is a small enclosure of approximately of the same (or slightly larger) dimensions as a Punch and Judy man’s tent by the seaside). Most physical mediums operate in total darkness, or with just the use of a dim red light for illumination, although a number of currently-developing physical mediums and scientifically-minded researchers are now experimenting with various other forms of lighting (including spirit lights brought by the spirit teams of the mediums concerned). 
The ‘ectoplasm’ is exuded from the physical medium’s body (from any or all of the body’s natural orifices) and can be moulded by the spirit guides and helpers to form a solid ‘materialization’ of a spirit person, which can often be positively identified by friends and relatives of the spirit person. For the manipulation and levitation of objects such as a trumpet (a megaphone like object used for amplification of direct-voice communication from spirit) in the seance room, an ectoplasmic rod with a pseudopod for gripping is used by the spirit people. In every case, the ectoplasm remains connected by an umbilical cord-like structure to the medium whilst phenomena takes place. It is this ectoplasmic connection which makes the whole proceedings physically dangerous for the medium. If a sitter does something silly, like switching on an electric light in the middle of a seance, the ectoplasm shoots back into the body of the medium at an alarmingly fast rate; causing (at the best) burns to the medium’s body and (at the worst) occasionally internal damage that has, on occasion, led directly to the death or serious injury of the medium. Such was the case with Helen Duncan and Alec Harris, both famous materialization mediums. Consequently, in all sittings where physical mediumship is conducted through an ectoplasmic-based system, careful precautions have to be observed for the safety of the medium. The ectoplasmic-based physical medium often takes many years to develop their mediumship fully.
The second, and more modern method of producing physical phenomena is by way of an energy-based procedure. This form of physical phenomena was largely pioneered by the Spirit Team working with us during the Scole Experimental Group in the 1990’s. There may indeed be one or more mediums in a group where this method is being used. They may, or may not necessarily be used in deep trance; sometimes, the group are not even aware of who the medium or mediums might be! The spiritual energies of all the group members are blended and involved in the energy-based process. Whilst groups of this sort should start out in total darkness, the spirit team working with a particular group often bring their own spirit-lighting fairly soon in the development of the phenomena to provide adequate illumination.
The energy that is used by the spirit team is a blend of three different types of energy which, when mixed together, provides one creative energy, which can then be used by the spirit team or individual spirit persons in a physical way to demonstrate the phenomena which is produced.
These 3 forms of energy are:
1) Spiritual energy taken from all the sitters in the group.
2) Spirit energy brought by the spirit team from the spirit world, especially for the purposes of their producing the ‘creative energy’ needed at a particular sitting.
3) Colums or ‘pillars’ of natural earth energy which exists in certain geographical locations around the world. By their work, groups sitting for physical phenomena can attract one of these columns of energy to them for the work, or even create a new column in the place where the sittings take place.
There are a number of advantages to working in this new way with energy, although I should point out that neither method of working is better than, or superior to the other. These advantages include:
a) Phenomena can develop quicker in the energy way. Sometimes in months rather than in years.
b) There is absolutely no danger whatsoever to mediums or sitters if somebody does something stupid
during an energy-based sitting. The phenomena will simply stop,
c) The energy-based method is more versatile in that more types of phenomena can be developed in this way. At Scole, we counted around 180 different types of phenomena that were developed during the 5-year history of the Scole Experimental Group. 
These are the basic facts of the two methods for producing physical phenomena. Next, we will be looking at the actual types of physical phenomena that can be produced by the spirit helpers using these two methods. I will now go on to list and describe some of the types of phenomena that can be witnessed when the medium, group or circle is working in either an ectoplasmic-based way or an energy-based way. I will first describe those types that are typical of ectoplasm-based phenomena. EVERYTHING that happens in an ectoplasm-based way can be duplicated in an energy-based way. It is important to realise, however, that although the same effects can be reproduced in either way, the method of production is definitely different. Consequently, there are sometimes different names for a similar effect produced through the creative energy method. Where this is the case, I include the new energy-based names in brackets.
1) DROP IN TEMPERATURE: Self-explanatory; one of the first signs in a physical circle, round knees and below. 
2) PSYCHIC BREEZES: Can be felt around the experimental room, particularly when a spirit person is very close.
3) PSYCHIC SMELLS AND AROMAS: Can be scents, smell of tobacco or something associated with a spirit person
4) RAPS AND TAPS: Of various strengths and intensity can be heard around the room coming from any surface.
5) RINGING OF BELLS: That are present in the room; perhaps hanging from the ceiling or placed on the floor.  
6) SITTERS BEING SPLASHED WITH WATER DROPLETS: In a playful way occasionally by members of the spirit team
7) ELECTROSTATIC CRACKLING IN THE AIR: The noise of ectoplasm/energy being moved about and manipulated.
8) LEVITATION: Of small objects; then large ones such as heavy tables, chairs or people, sometimes to ceiling. 
9) DIRECT SPIRIT WRITING: On a piece of paper or pad that has been left in the room specially for the purpose.
10) APPORTS: Objects brought into seance room from elsewhere during a sitting – sometimes little presents.  
11) ASPORTS: Opposite to apports; objects in seance room at start, removed by spirit team during a seance.  
12) SPIRIT LIGHTS: Usually are more limited in type, variety, size and duration than those produced by energy.
13) TRANSFIGURATION: Mask of ectoplasm covering medium’s face molded by spirit into face of communicator
14) PLAYING OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS: By spirit musicians, (or less well by enthusiastic child spirit guides!!)    
15) DIRECT VOICE: This refers to spirit voices speaking through a ‘trumpet’ (aluminum cone like a megaphone -specially for the purpose) which is usually levitated in mid-air at the time.                                                   
16) INDEPENDENT VOICE (ENERGY VOICES IN NEW WAY PRODUCED WITHOUT ECTOPLASM): A superb type of phenomena where the spirit team build a replica of a human voice-box in mid-air out of ectoplasm. Spirit voices can speak through this, sometimes in their own exact voice whilst on earth. The two way conversation between sitters and spirit communicators sounds just as though two earthly physical people are talking.        
17) MATERIALISATION (TELEPORTATION IN NEW WAY OF ACTUAL SPIRIT PERSON WITHOUT ECTOPLASM): This is an amazing phenomena to witness. An animated replica of a spirit person is created by the spirit team from the substance called ectoplasm, appearing totally solid and fully recognisable; able to interact with relatives, friends and loved ones. These materialisations are generally unable to stay for long, and return to the ‘cabinet’ to dematerialise in order to make way for the next ‘materialisation’.                                                            
18) MATTER THROUGH MATTER: Spirit team can dematerialise any matter (such as part of the medium’s own body or chair) and re-materialise this in the same place or elsewhere.
20) HEALING AS SPIRIT LIGHT ENTERS A SITTER’S BODY: This is fully visible. The light has weight and substance and can move freely around the patient’s body (always felt physically by patient) till it emerges visibly again from patient. Healing given in this way was always extremely effective. It happened to me many times.        
21) ANY SOUND CAN BE DUPLICATED IN CIRCLE: This includes the sound of ANY musical instrument that is not in the room at the time; a spirit team can also, for instance pretend to give a ‘haircut’ to a sitter. The scissors can be heard opening and closing; the comb can be heard being drawn across a chair, when NONE of these instruments or objects are in the room in reality!                                                                                     
22) EXTENDED VOICE: this occurs when the trance communication from a medium (through his or her larynx in the normal way) suddenly seems to come from a different place in the room, although the medium is still sitting in the same place. What happens here is that by using energy, the spirit team are able to make the source of the medium’s voice appear to move anywhere in that room within a split second, without the medium moving. The voice can even, on occasions, seem to come from WITHIN the walls of the room.             
23) TELEPORTED SPIRIT BEINGS AND (in some groups) STELLAR FRIENDS FROM OTHER DIMENSIONS: Can move freely around the room in solid form and interact constantly with sitters. There seems to be no time limit on their presence and they are able to undertake many normal tasks whilst they are present which would seem to be beyond the ability of etoplasmic-based materialization; we have personally experienced the presence of eight or more of these teleported beings in an experimental room at the same time!                                 
24) PSYCHIC PHOTOGRAPHY: Of many different types; sometimes appearing on a 35mm film in a camera which is levitated by spirit team and proceeds to take pictures in total darkness; at other times, a complete 35mm film still in its shop wrapping and locked into a security box can be covered from end to end with pictures and writing produced by a spirit team. We had pictures and portraits also captured on a video camera as we sat.  
25) SVO’S – SOLID VISIBLE OBJECTS: These were self-illuminated objects that had no name on our earth but that were common in the spirit world itself. They were brought by our spirit team for us to see and examine in a solid form before they were again taken back to the spirit world.                                             
26) VSB’S – VISIBLE SPIRIT BEINGS: Not spirit people but ANGELIC BEINGS. Self-luminous; they would build up on a table in front of our eyes to a height of about two to three feet (resembling a madonna-type figure), before floating around the room in front of our eyes, allowing their robes to trail over our hands. The wonderful love that emanated from these beings was amazing! The room was ‘charged’ with energy when they were present.  
27) VOICE-TO-VOICE COMMUNICATION WITH SPIRIT BEINGS: Of excellent clarity and volume through the simple amplifier of a cheap tape recorder.                                                                                               
28) TELEPORTED PRESENCE OF MINIATURE UFO: Which flew around the room on a number of occasions, pausing in front of each sitter so they could examine it closely, with its illuminated portholes.                                  
29) VOICE-TO-VOICE COMMUNICATION WITH ‘STELLAR FRIENDS’ AND OTHER WORLD BEINGS: through the amplifier of a cheap tape recorder, when this was attached to the simple TRANS-DIMENSIONAL COMMUNICATION DEVICE that was deigned by our spirit team. A blueprint of this device was received by us on an unopened film when we were asked to build it. An IDOLIS system (Inter-Dimensional Oral Language Interpretation System) was incorporated into this device by the spirit team for use during our communications so we could hear the communications in ENGLISH through a ‘robotic’ voice.
Finally, it is important to recognise that not all Physical Phenomena occurs within Experimental Groups and Physical Circles sitting especially for the purpose under strictly controlled conditions. Here are a few examples of phenomena in this category. Some are purposely sought by experimenters; others occur quite naturally and spontaneously during our everyday lives:
C) DOWSING                         
D) DRV (DIRECT RADIO VOICES): on a one-to-one basis through a functioning radio (as in case of Marcello Bacci)
H) SPIRIT MESSAGES LEFT ON ANSWERPHONES.                                                                                           
I) ITC (INSTRUMENTAL TRANS-COMMUNICATION): A whole sub-category by itself. Includes: IMAGES OF SPIRIT PEOPLE AND OTHER DIMENSIONAL PEOPLE ON TELEVISION SCREENS. Also communication received through any other technical devices such as COMPUTERS. Strictly speaking, communications on answerphones and EVP can loosely be fitted int this category too.
All the types of phenomena I have mentioned here – both ectoplasmic-based and energy-based – are the main types you are likely to come into contact with if you are researching this exciting subject thoroughly. However, the list is not by any means a totally comprehensive one. There is much more to discover as you get deeper into the topic. I am always happy to answer any serious questions.
If you find yourself to be really interested in the subject of Physical Mediumship and its phenomena – or want to seriously research the subject, I would suggest that you join my free website that is dedicated to this rare form of mediumship:  Physical Mediumship 4U  We have over 2,730 members all over the world now.

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